Ever considered starting a pig farm and wondered what it’s going to take? That’s exactly what you will be learning in this article. Pig farming in Nigeria has gained some momentum over the years as more and more people are opening pig farms. This is due to the fact that many people are now enjoying eating pig meat for a number of reasons. Not only is pig meat delicious but it is also healthy because it is rich in protein and other vitamins.
Between 1970 and 2019, Nigeria’s production of pork meat grew significantly from 28,350 to 302,027 000 tonnes (Source: Knoema). So you can see margin of growth and it keeps rising due to the high demand of pork meat in Nigeria.
What Is Pig Farming?
Pig farming is a branch of animal husbandry and livestock farming. It is also known as Piggery and is a very lucrative agricultural business to do in Nigeria. In fact, a lot of millionaires have been made in Nigeria who engages in pig farming business as a source of income.
Newly born pigs are known as piglets. The male pig is called a boar while the female pig is known as a sow.
Why pig farming in Nigeria is a lucrative business
The following are reasons why pig farming in Nigeria is a lucrative business:
1. They Grow and Breed Fast
Pigs are fast-growing livestock that can also be bred to large numbers. A female adult pig, also known as a sow, can produce up to 15 piglets at once. This is a natural ability that enables the pigs to reproduce more and helps the farmer to keep making money. This enables your business to boom and your bank account to grow fat consistetly.
2. Pork meat is popular
Pigmeat, also known as pork, is the most popular meat in the world. It is highly sought after on the international market. Pig meat is used by meat sellers for many purposes, including making sausages and bacon that can be shipped to western countries for large profits. The meat is more expensive the larger the pig.
3. Low mortality rate
Pigs are very healthy and have a low mortality rate when compared to other animals.
4. Low cost of feeding
Pigs can be raised even if you don’t have the money to buy expensive pig feed. You can still eat leftovers from the kitchen, as they are omnivores and will eat almost all the same food as humans. They are tougher and easier to raise. They can live for days without water or food. Pigs are more affordable to raise over the long-term.
5. Resistant to most diseases
If they are raised with enough care, they are strong and resistant to most diseases. Pigs are more immune than other animals if they receive the correct vaccination at the right moment. Pig farmers don’t have to worry about an outbreak of disease.
To prevent any diseases, you can always get your pigs vaccinated.
For proper body development, pig growth, and strength, a balanced diet of vitamins, carbohydrates, and minerals is essential. Because pigs can be playful, they will often contaminate the water supply. For assistance, speak to the pig farmers.
To prevent future diseases, it is important to provide proper vaccination.
5 Steps to successfully start pig farming in Nigeria
Here are some of the basic steps you need to know and take to succeed as a pig farmer in Nigeria, they include but are not limited to the following:
#1. Get a pig farm space
Pigs multiply quickly so it is important to provide enough space for their expected number. Also consider that since pigs can be smelly, you may not want to start it where other people reside to avoid them filing complaints against you.
You can start small by purchasing a small piece of land that is well-sealed and has a good water source. However, if you are looking to start a farm on a larger scale, it is essential that you find land with enough space to allow for grazing as well as roaming for your pigs. A large number of pigs in a small confined space can be unhealthy. Your business’s size will determine the best choice.
Read Also: How to Start Rabbit Farming In Nigeria
#2. Construct the Pig Pen
A Pen is a house built for the pigs to live in, this may not be a cumbersome process if you have some form of expert advice, or the guidance of someone already in the business also.
When constructing the pig pen, it is important to consider whether there are adequate shade and drainage for waste water to flow through. This will keep the pigs clean and free from disease. Also, make sure the pen protects them from the sun and has a good source of water.
The size of your pen is always determined by the size of your budget, so with a little budget, it is only wise to plan for what is moderate enough to give you hands-on experience. You can start small with a few pigs, gain the experience, then increase your pen and pigs.
#3. Buy Healthy Piglets
Doing proper research on how to breed pigs will save you lots of headaches in this business. One area that requires such attention is the aspect of the health and vaccination of pigs.
When you decide to get started, make sure you start out with healthy piglets. Buy healthy piglets that has been vaccinated and not the ones with a history of sickness. This will help you secure your investment by making sure your pigs are vaccinated from the start.
#4. Provide Proper Feeding
Having to provide the right feed for your piglet is an essential part of succeeding in this business. This is because the growth and development of the pigs determines the size of the pigs, and the size of the pigs determine the price you’ll sell our pigs.
The sole aim of feeding pigs is to make sure they grow big and mature enough for good sales. A balanced diet that includes vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals is essential for healthy body development and the proper meat-to-fat ratio. It also helps to ensure the health and growth of the pig.
Check out this article on how to formulate your own balanced pig feed in Nigeria.
#5. Provide Steady Fresh Water
Pigs need constant and regular supply of fresh water. Access to clean and fresh water daily is important as pigs usually needs water to dip themselves into and relieve themselves of the heat. Also they like to play in water. Building a swimming pool-like area where the pigs go and swim to stay fresh and cool is needed. Otherwise, they look for dirty swamps around and get dirty.
Note: Dirty water close by may lead to outbreak of illness, and you don’t want to joke with losing your investment to illness that is preventable, so plug in this clean water supply strategy into the plan.
How Much Can You Make From Pig Farming In Nigeria?
Nigerians who are into this business can tell you that there is money there, and it is the right business to go into.
Thing that can make up the cost:
- Farm space: Estimated to need about N200,000 depending on location. This is if you are going to rent the pig farm space. It could be less or more depending on your location. If you are based in a rural area, it could be far less but if you are based in the city it could be more. On a small scale, one plot of land will suffice.
- Construction of drainage, pen, etc.: Estimated to about N300,000. It could be less or more depending on the size, labourer and materials needed.
- Feeeding: Feeding 10 pigs, starting at the point they stop drinking milk and ending at maturity (which takes 5 months), costs about N50,000. Making or formulating the feed for your pigs will help you keep your costs low.
As a pig farmer, you can sell a fully grown pig for as much as N50, 000 depending on the weight of the pig. With 10 pigs- you earn about 500,000 in 5 months. In 5 months, if 5 out of the 10 reproducts, you get about 50 piglets that will also mature in 5 months giving you about 2.5 million. If you add you income in one year from just 10 pigs, it’ll be 3 million.
This income also doubles in the following year.
So imagine starting with 100 piglets, you will be making a minimum of 35 million naira in one year.